The Aum Shinrikyo
by Marty Butz
Asahara (formerly Chizuo Matsumoto)
Founding Date: 1987
Truth of Humanity's Destruction, The Secret Prophecy of Nostradamus,
Declaring Myself the Christ (parts 1 & 2).
Asahara has wielded absolute authority as the movement's "Supreme Leader."
Over the years, members have occupied any one of seven ranks indicating
varying stages of spiritual enlightenment. For practical purposes, Aum
was structured to mirror the framework of the Japanese government with
24 distinct organizations set up to carry out specific functions.
Aum Shinrikyo was founded
by Shoko Asahara, formerly Chizuo Matsumoto, who was born partially blind
into a poor family in 1955. Even early on, Asahara aspired to be a leader,
running for president in elementary, junior high and senior high school.
However, he was continually rejected by his classmates who feared him and
his threats (David E. Kaplan & Andrew Marshall. The Cult at the
End of the World: The Terrifying Story of the Aum Doomsday Cult, from the
Subways of Tokyo to the Nuclear Arsenals of Russia, 1996, p. 8).
Soon after Asahara married
in 1978, and after already failing his entry exams for Tokyo University,
he embarked on a business venture peddling quack remedies. Eventually,
the police caught up with him and he was found guilty of a criminal felony.
After his fraudulent activities were exposed in a local paper, his business
went broke (D. W. Brackett, Holy Terror: Armageddon in Tokyo, 1996,
p. 64). After some spiritual searching and disappointment, Asahara started
his own religious organization, incorporating Aum Shinsen-no kai in 1984,
later to be named Aum Shinrikyo meaning "teaching the universal or supreme
truth" (U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Investigations (Minority Staff), Staff
Statement, Global Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Case
Study of the Aum Shinri Kyo, Washington, D.C. October 31, 1995, p.
9). Previously, Asahara was a devout member of Agonshu, a new Japanese
religion from which Aum was to inherit many elements (Shimazono Susumu,
"In the Wake of Aum: The Formation and Transformation of a Universe of
Belief," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 1995 22/3-4, p.
In 1985, perhaps still ambitious
for leadership, Asahara realized his own divine appointment and religious
calling. While conducting religious exercises, Asahara claims he experienced
a divine visitation from the Hindu god Shiva. Asahara also began to claim
special powers, such as the ability to levitate. This claim was reported
in an occult journal and provided Asahara with a significant degree of
free publicity (Ibid., p. 388). Very quickly, Aum collected a very large
following through various means, including, but not limited to, leafleting
and street corner proselytizing. Aum's classes on yoga, herbal healing
and meditation also played a part. Additionally, Aum owned a number of
computer stores, book stores and noodle shops through which it was able
to gain recruits (Senate Report, p. 22). Beyond these means, a number
of experts testified that Aum used "psychedelic and mind-altering drugs
in the recruitment process." Reportedly, these elements were used in conjunction
with "brainwashing techniques including sleep deprivation and isolation
therapy" to obtain or retain followers (Ibid.). As Aum grew in membership,
complaints also grew in number. Parents and family members of Aum converts
alleged that the organization was guilty of kidnappings and physical violence.
The result was the birth of a number of concerned parent groups in response
to Aum's assaults. "Those who formed these groups complained that they
themselves became victims of assaults and harassment" (Ibid., p. 10-11).
1989 marked the first major
turning point for Aum when it obtained "official religious corporation
status." This status came as a result of Aum's vigorous lobbying campaign
and "scandalous" efforts to pressure the certifying agency and local politicians
(Ibid., p. 9). Apparently, after demonstrations, protest letters, a lawsuit
and having its officials "hounded," government officials "caved in and
registered the cult" (The Cult at the End of the World, p. 24).
Aum's recognition as an official religion was important for a variety of
reasons. In addition to providing Aum with "massive tax breaks," it also
provided Aum with "de facto immunity from official oversight and prosecution."
By law, Aum's new found religious recognition would tend to inhibit any
investigation with regard to its doctrine or practices, including seemingly
"for profit" activities. Even criminal activities would now be "difficult,
if not impossible" to investigate because of the "government's reluctance
to investigate religions" (Senate Report, p. 9). Within months of
Aum's receiving official religious status, "the cult felt so confident
that they were immune from government interference that they decided to
silence Sakamoto," a distinguished lawyer who "had represented many of
these anti-Aum groups." After murdering Sakamoto, his wife and his one
year old son, "the lack of any government response.apparently emboldened
the Cult to commit even more horrible and blatant attacks upon their perceived
enemies in Japan" (Ibid., p. 11). Thus, Aum's obtaining official religious
status was a major turning point in the development of Aum's character.
The second major turning
point in Aum's development occurred in 1990. Asahara revisited his once
youthful dream of becoming Prime Minister of Japan, and so he campaigned,
along with other followers, to be elected to the Japanese parliament. However,
despite Asahara's predictions, "The election proved a disaster.. All twenty-five
Aum candidates went down to miserable defeats, including Asahara" (The
Cult at the End of the World, p. 47). The political failure affected
the developing character of the organization. As Aum's election fortunes
turned sour, Asahara's views towards the future turned increasingly more
pessimistic. His "preaching dwelled more and more on the disasters awaiting
humanity." He "had taken the defeats personally and swore revenge on those
who dared to stand in Aum's way" (Ibid., pp. 48, 49). "From then on the
rhetoric of Armageddon and paranoia became incessant" (Senate Report,
p. 12) and he predicted that war would break out "between Japan and the
United States.sometime in 1997" (Ibid., p. 13).
Armageddon proved to be
much more than just talk for Asahara as he and members of his inner circle
planned and amassed weapons of mass destruction, while actually carrying
out numerous violent and illegal acts, including murder. However, it was
Aum's sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system which ultimately drew
decisive attention to its dangerous activities and true nature. While the
attack killed 12 and injured 5,000, it had the potential to kill tens of
thousands. In response, Japanese police made massive raids and arrests
of Aum members. By 1996, "of the one hundred seventy Aum members arrested
by police, more than one hundred have been brought to trial. All were found
guilty and received either prison terms or suspended sentences" (Holy
Terror, p. 183). Startling revelations have come to the surface in
the aftermath of the Tokyo gassing. Among these, it was learned that Aum:
had accumulated over $1 billion in assets, had successfully "forged relations
with Japan's ruthless crime syndicate" and the Soviet KGB, had "infiltrated
various levels of the Japanese government and industry including law enforcement
and military," had regularly used murder and kidnapping to silence its
enemies, and was in the process of developing the biological weapons of
anthrax, botulism and 'Q' fever (Senate Report, pp. 2, 5; The
Cult at the End of the World, p. 3). Shoko Asahara's trial still continues.
In the larger context, Aum's
doctrine was influenced by many themes, some deeply rooted in Japan's religious
history. These themes include, "(1) a taste for religious syncretism; (2)
a concern with miracles.; (3) a stress on recruitment, donations, and growth;
(4) a fascination with esoteric Buddhism and its attendant beliefs (such
as in 'holy men,' living Buddhas capable of the direct physical transfer
of power); (5) a taste for Buddhist doctrines and meditation practices
that see reality as an illusion and approve of a calm and serene detachment;
(6). an interest in occultism and psychological techniques as means to
effect physical and spiritual transformation (an interest widespread in
mass culture since the 1970s)" (In the Wake of Aum, pp. 410-11).
Early on, Asahara was also
influenced by his association with the religious system of Agonshu. Asahara
"inherited many elements. including deep concern with freedom from Karma
through magical ritual practices; with the transformation of mind and body
and the development of psychic powers through science; with meditation
focusing on the awakening of kundalini through the union of yoga and esoteric
Buddhism; and with the development of a teaching and training system based
on early Buddhism" (Ibid., p. 387). However, in contrast to Agonshu, Aum
strongly emphasized teachings related to emancipation ("transcending life
and death"- gedatsu) and enlightenment ("absolute freedom, absolute
happiness"- satori) (Ibid.). Emancipation or gedatsu was vaguely
defined, though Aum was very much devoted to bringing quick deliverance
from bad karma. Aum implemented training for its members and eventually
delineated various stages towards reaching this ultimate stage of emancipation.
Worldly denial was one means towards obtaining emancipation. However, over
the course of time, the concept of emancipation for members was closely
tied to a strong dependence of Aum members upon Shoko Asahara and being
committed to Aum Shinrikyo.
Aum members could move along
in their spiritual development through various ways and magical rites.
For example, a ceramic mystical trinket known as the perusha was worn as
a badge and said to contain the energy of the Master (Ibid., p. 394). In
the shaktipat rite, requiring a significant donation, spiritual development
could be accelerated through the mystical touch on the forehead by one
had already attained gedatsu (Ibid., pp. 394-5). In time, "students were
told that cash donations to Aum would help their 'spiritual development'"
(The Cult at the End of the World, p. 15). Some rites were very
expensive and the total variety eventually numbered twenty. Aum's spiritual
rites came to include such things as drinking Asahara's blood, drinking
his used bath water, and drinking brewed hair locks or beard clippings
(Ibid., p. 18).
Asahara claimed for himself
a messianic mantle. In 1985, Asahara allegedly had a visitation from the
Hindu god Shiva about his identity and calling. Asahara then understood
himself to be "'the god of light who leads the armies of the gods' and
is to create an ideal society made up of those who have attained psychic
powers, a society called the kingdom of Shambhala" (In the Wake of Aum,
p. 388). In keeping with Asahara's grandiose claims, he supposedly possessed
supernatural powers, including the ability to levitate and to remain suspended
in water. After a spiritual pilgrimage to the Himalayas, Asahara wrote
that he was now "'free to leave my physical body, any time, anywhere.'"
(The Cult at the End of the World, p. 14).
Supernatural abilities were
not reserved for himself, but were available to all who would become enlightened
through him. Advertisement for Asahara's first book, Secrets of Developing
Your Powers, claimed, "'Spiritual training that doesn't lead to supernatural
powers is hogwash! . The Venerable Master will show you the secrets of
his amazing mystic powers. See the future, read people's minds, make your
wishes come true, X-ray vision, levitation, trips to the fourth dimension,
hear the voice of God and more..'" (The Cult at the End of the World,
Though personal emancipation
or salvation was emphasized, Asahara also conceived of establishing a utopian
society. However, such a society would not be possible until a final war
or Armageddon was to take place. In Aum's early development, Aum perceived
itself to be in a position to help save people outside the membership of
Aum survive this final war. Later in Aum's development, it was perceived
that "society in general was under the rule of the devil, and that Aum
was thus under attack by agents of evil" (In the Wake of Aum, p.
399). Foremost instruments of evil in the world were the United States
and the Jewish people, whom Aum perceived as the "hidden enemy" (Senate
Report, p. 19) Ultimately, salvation would be "only coming at the end
of Armageddon to those who adopted the Aum faith" (Ibid., p. 13).
Asahara dwelt on the subject
of the apocalypse in a number of books which he authored. These included
Truth of Humanity's Destruction, The Secret Prophecy of Nostradamus,
Declaring Myself the Christ, and Declaring Myself the Christ, Part
II (Holy Terror, p. 95). However, even years earlier, Asahara
had made specific predictions regarding events leading up to the Apocalypse,
including the demise of the Japanese economy in 1990 which would "lead
to a virtual police state" and that "the year 1996 will witness 'the sinking
of Japan'." (The Cult at the End of the World, p. 17).
The biblical teaching concerning
life after death is contrary to all eastern religions, including Aum, which
teach reincarnation. Hebrews 9:27 teaches that ".it is appointed unto men
once to die, but after this the judgment."
Shoko Asahara assumed the
status of a prophet when he made predictions concerning the future- e.g.,
saying that Japan would turn into a "virtual police state" in 1990, that
Japan would entirely sink into the ocean in 1996, and that war would break
out between the United States and Japan in 1997. Biblically, Shoko Asahara
is judged to be a false prophet since he has made prophecies which have
failed. (See Deuteronomy 18:20-22)
Shoko Asahara claimed for
himself the mantle of "Christ." However, the Bible teaches that there is
only one Christ, Jesus Christ, and all others claiming to be Christ are
in fact anti-Christs (see Acts 4:12, Acts 1:12, Matthew 24:4-5, 23-27,
1 John 2:18).
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